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Jan 12

nigeria crime rate

Offences against property includes: armed robbery, house and store breakings, forgery, theft/stealing, etc. So many factors can be attributed to the problem. Simply stated, in principal components analysis we take linear combinations of all of the original variables so that we may reduce the number of variables from p to m, where the number m of principal components is less than p. Further, the method allows us to take the principal components and use them to gain information about the entire data set via the correlation between the principal components and the original variables. People are often driven to great lengths of desperation by poverty and this is a major cause of crime. Variables sometimes tend to repeat themselves. Looking for a flexible role? Crime is one of the continuous problems that bedevil the existence of mankind. Niger crime rate & statistics for was 0.00, a NAN% decline from . The North-Central had 81 armed robbery cases in Niger State, the FCT and Zamfara State. Poverty and economic deprivation have been seen to be the number cause of crime in the country. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Enugu State, in the south east, is the official crime capital of Nigeria, a crime perception survey released on Monday in Abuja has said. Then, what are the causes of the police failure in preventing and controlling the crimes? Nigerian criminal gangs rose to prominence in the 1980s, owing much to the globalization of the world's economies and the high level of lawlessness and corruption in the country. Company Registration No: 4964706. PCA is a data analysis tool that is usually used to reduce the dimensionality (number of variable) of a large number of interrelated variables while retaining as much of the information (variation) as possible. Niger crime rate & statistics for was 0.00, a NAN% decline from . Nigeria crime rate & statistics for was 0.00, a NAN% decline from. Taking the partial derivative with respect to â„“i of the Var(yi) – λ(â„“iTâ„“i – 1), where λ is the Lagrange Multiplier results in the equation. Nigeria: Abuja's Disturbing Increase in Crime Rate. Having a large number of variables in a study makes it difficult to decipher patterns of association. PortuguêsCrime na Nigéria No plagiarism, guaranteed! Scanty police presence, spike in crime rate trigger fear among Lagos residents. 43% more than Nigeria Fear of crime > Violent hate crime: 44.12 Ranked 12th. It’s unfortunate that Nigeria has to brandish facts about crimes, which only mock our strength as a nation. Designating a dimension as a principal component often reveals information about correlations between remaining variables which at first was not readily available. Murder often accompanies minor burglaries. Cyber-crime can be linked with the high unemployment rate, harsh economic conditions, and poor educational system. In the United States, the Federal Bureau of Investigation tabulates the annual crime data as Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). Shehu el al (2009) research on analysis of crime data using principal component analysis: A case study of Katsina State. Crime increasing in the past 3 years. Terms of Use and It does so by using mainly the primary variables to explain the majority of the information provided by the data set. Worries home broken and things stolen. According to … If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! VAT Registration No: 842417633. This process goes on until an ample amount of information/variance is accounted for. In Printcom (2003) for 1997 US crime data, the overall crime rate was determined from the first PC ,and the same result was achieved by Hardle and Zdenek (2007) for the 1985 US crime data. Nigeria has one of the alarming crime rates in the world (Uche, 2008 and Financial, 2011). Cases of armed robbery attacks, pickpockets, shoplifting and 419 have increased due to increased poverty among population (Lagos, undated). The unemployment rate in Nigeria is alarmingly high. The first principal component is determined by the linear combination that has the highest variance. High. The fact that such frustration is created is in itself a very dangerous thing for society on the whole as global inflation has risen significantly over the last few years. Niger crime rate & statistics for 2011 was 4.90, a INF% increase from . Note that they are positive. iii. Social and environmental factor (Sutherland, 1939): The environment is said to play significant role in determining criminal behaviour. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. The second PC which is interpreted as “type of crime component” has successively classified the seven crimes into violence and property crime. Lagos city of Nigeria has seen a sharp decline in crime rate after law enforcement officers went on strike, raising questions on the role of police in causing crime. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Insecurity: Crime rate is declining in Nigeria, says : IGP Adamu. In the year 2011, armed robbers killed at least 12 people and possibly more in attacks on a bank and police station in North-Eastern Nigeria (Nossiter, 2011). Kutigi (2008) has said that the factors of crime in Nigeria and poverty and ignorance which are at the same time the opinion of many Nigerians (Azaburke, 2007). In Nigeria, the primary aim of the Crime Victimization Survey is first and foremost to understand the trends and changes in crimes in Nigeria. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Below this point is where the graph becomes somewhat horizontal. The main objective of Principal Components Analysis is to locate linear combinations , with the greatest variance. Scree plots are graphs of the variance (eigenvalue) of each principal component in descending order. Our data for each country are based on all entries from all cities in that country. FrançaisCriminalité au Nigéria The aim of the study is to show the pattern and rate of crime in Nigeria based on the data collected and to show the relationships that exist among the various crime … According to available statistics, Nigeria has almost 20 million unemployed people, with about 2 million new entrants into the dispirited realm of the unemployed each year. The most important aspect of criminal justice system is the police. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The increase in the crime rate in the FCT may not be unconnected to the rising level of youth unemployment in the country. EFCC of Nigeria registers all the Cybercafes to monitor their activities. However, crime control and prevention is still bedeviled by numerous complex problems. Prevalence of bribery in the public sector, Average number of bribes paid to public officials by bribe-payers, Total number of bribes paid to public officials in Nigeria, Per capita number of bribes paid to public officials, Contact rate with public officials. Shows how much people think the problem in their community are property crimes (home broken, car theft, etc. Nigeria is one of the limited number of countries in the world that still has the death penalty. Nigeria has one of the alarming crime rates in the world (Uche, 2008 and Financial, 2011). EspañolCriminalidad en Nigeria, Copyright © 2009-2021 Numbeo. Home » News » Insecurity: Crime rate is declining in Nigeria, says : IGP Adamu. 16 August 2020. 36% more than United States 32.55 Ranked 31st. Despite the fact that, crime is inevitable in a society Durkheim (1933), various controlling and preventive measures had been taken, and are still being taken to reduce the menace. The British High Commission in Lagos cited more than 3000 cases of forgeries annually (Nigeria, 1991).In the early 1990s, there was growing number of robberies from 1,937 in 1990 to 2,419 in 1996, and later the figure declined to 2,291 in 1999. Principal component analysis can also be used to determine the overall criminality. Nigeria had a murder rate of 9.85 per 100,000 population in 2015. Therefore, the existence of crime and its problems have spanned the history of mankind. Niger crime rate & statistics for 2012 was 4.40, a 10.2% decline from 2011. Criminal justice system can be defined as a procedure of processing the person accused of committing crime from arrest to the final disposal of the case (Danbazau, 2007). This data article contains the partial analysis (both descriptive and inferential) of crime data set obtained between 1999 and 2013. Part 1 violent crimes include murder and criminal homicide (voluntary manslaughter), forcible rape, aggravated assault, and robbery; while part 1 property crimes include burglary, arson, larceny/theft, and motor vehicle theft. However, according to figures in 2007, the number of executions are low at just 6. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! However, for the past three decades there have been serious dissatisfaction and public criticisms over the conduct of the police (Danbazau, 2007). Prevalence of bribery in the public sector, Average number of bribes paid to public officials … Cybercrime can be associated with high rate of unemployment, harsh economic conditions, and poor educational system. Your use of this service is subject to our Most crimes are however, purely as a result of poverty. The original variables that are highly correlated with each principal component that is kept determine what the label of that particular component will be. One device that assists us in this decision process is a scree plot. Principal Components Analysis simplifies multivariate data in that it reduces the dimensionality of the data. Tell us your opinion about crime in Orem, UT. A point called an “elbow” is designated. China, by comparison is the table topper with 470 executions. 2.1 INTRODUCTION: In this chapter we are going to review some research work which has been carry out. The crime rate in Nigeria is inconceivable; it literally blows the mind. Crime started in the primitive days as a simple and less organized issue, and ended today as very complex and organized. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Since forth early days, crime had been a disturbing threat to his personality, property and lawful authority (Louis et al., 1981). Besides, poverty remains a socio-economic problem that may increase criminal risk as rapid 69.29. Correlation matrix and Principal Component analysis were developed to explain the correlation between the crimes and to determine the distribution of the crimes over the Local Government areas of the State. Criminal behaviour cannot be explained by a single factor, because human behaviour is a complex interaction between genetic, environmental, social psychological and cultural factor. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. However, Maritz (2010) has considered that image as merely exaggeration. The application of multivariate statistics has made some contributions to many criminological explanations (Kpedekpo and Arya, 1981 and Printcom, 2003). In a country where economic deprivation persists often drive its citizens to take to crime to survive. If it does not provide adequate information, then the linear combination that displays the highest variance accounted for after the first principal component’s variation is removed is designated as the second principal component. Rich Nigerians live in high – security compounds. Nigeria has one of the highest crime rates in the world. Statistics The characteristic vector corresponding to λ1, the root that accounts for the maximum variance, is â„“1. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Copyright © 2009-2021 Numbeo. According to the Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria has about 41 per cent unemployment rate in … Among these trending criminal activities human kidnapping for a … Organized crime in Nigeria includes activities by fraudsters, bandits in northern Nigeria (such as looting and kidnappings on major highways), drug traffickers and racketeers, which have spread across Western Africa. Throughout the 1990s, assault and theft constituted the larger category of the crime. This result is achieved by way of Lagrange Multipliers. Each principal component accounts for a dimension and the process continues only on the remaining dimensions. “Nigeria shockingly has a murder rate of 9.85 per cent 100,000 population. Comparisons improve with every new data that you enter. Matrices of correlations or loadings matrices show which principal component each variable is most highly associated with. Repetition is a sign of multicolinearity of variables, meaning that the variables may be presenting some of the same information. He added that, as is the case with the rest of the world, Nigeria’s metropolitan areas have more problems with crime than the rural areas. Analysis of a smaller number of variables always makes for a simpler process. Available data from the 1980s indicated a continuing increase. Nigeria has one of the alarming crime rates in … Any principal components whose variances lie above this point are kept and the others are discarded. In a society where the rich get richer and the poor keep b… In another dimension, according to Ayoola (2008), lack of integrity, transparency and accountability in the management of public funds, especially at all levels of government have been identified as the factors responsible for the endemic corruption that has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigerian society over the years. ), violent crimes (being mugged or robbed, being attacked or insulted), corruption and other crimes. Level of crime. There are the issue of inadequate manpower, equipment and professionalism (Danbazau, 2007), corruption (Al-Ghazali, 2004) and poor public perception on the Nigeria Police (Okeroko, 1993), which has consequently made the Nigerian Public unwilling to corporate with the police in crime prevention and control. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is very useful in crime analysis because of its robustness in data reduction and in determining the overall criminality in a given geographical area. Generally, the crime data grow from 244,354 in 1991 to 289,156 in 1993 (Cleen,1993) and continued to decline from 241,091 in 1994 to 167,492 in 1999 (Cleen, 2003). Offences against lawful authority include: forgery of current notes, gambling, breach of peace, bribery and corruption, etc. Worries being subject to a physical attack because of your skin color, ethnic origin, gender or religion, Problem property crimes such as vandalism and theft, Problem violent crimes such as assault and armed robbery. These data are based on perceptions of visitors of this website in the past 3 years. ii. Suicide in Nigeria has taken on a worrying dimension in recent times as stories of people killing themselves have become a mainstay in media reports. The paper consists of the average eight major crimes reported to the Police for the period 2006-2008. Most crime directed toward U.S. travelers and private-sector entities in southern Nigeria seeks financial gain. Moderate. 90% of such crimes are perpetrated by men against women. U usman et al (2012) carried out a research on ‘An investigation on the Rate of crime in Sokoto Using Principal Component Analysis. Study for free with our range of university lectures! When an opportunity for crime is blocked, an offender has several alternative types of displacement (Gabor, 1978). Therefore, the existence of crime and its problems have spanned the history of mankind. In a study to examine the statistical relationship between crime and socio-economic status in Ottawa and Saskatoon, the PCA was employed to replace a set of variables with a smaller number of components, which are made up of inter-correlated variables representing as much of the original data set as possible (Exp, 2008). Police in some states are empowered to “shoot on sight” violent criminals (Financial Times, 2009).In the 1980s, serious crime grew to nearly epidemic proportions, particularly in Lagos and other urbanized areas characterised by rapid growth and change, by stark economic inequality and deprivation, by social disorganisation, and by inadequate government service and law enforcement capabilities (Nigeria,1991).Annual crime rates fluctuated at around 200 per100,000 populations until the early 1960s and then steadily increased to more than 300 per 100,000 by the mid-1970s. Here we discuss some of the causes of crime: Biogenetic factors: Criminologists are with the opinion that criminal activity is due to the effect of biologically caused or inherited factors (Pratt and Cullen, 2000). Nigeria Terrorism Index - values, historical data and charts - was last updated on January of 2021. However, the introduction of modern scientific and technical methods in crime prevention and control has proved to be effective. 61.72. Crime rates in Lagos, Nigeria. From the above equations it can be easily verified that λ is a characteristic root of Σ and λi is equal to the variance of yi where λ1>λ2> … > λp are the characteristic roots. If some group of measures constitutes the scores of the numerous variables, the researchers may wish to combine the score of the numerous variables into smaller number of super variables to form the group of the measures (Jolliffe, 2002).This problem mostly happens in determining the relationship between socio-economic factors and crime incidences. The upgrade of security forces in Lagos state in recent years has helped the state fight against crime better. PCA uses the correlation among the variables to develop a small set of components that empirically summarised the correlation among the variables. 14175 Crime is prevalent throughout Nigeria. Yan Fang (2011) use multivariate methods analysis of crime data in Los Angeles Communities and from the findings Principal Component Analysis was successfully applied into the data by extracting five PCs out of the 15 original variable, which implies a great dimensionality reduction. From the results, three Principal Components was retained from seven, using the Scree plot and Loading plot indicating that correlation exist between crimes against persons and crime against properties. Terrorism Index in Nigeria averaged 6.84 from 2002 until 2019, reaching an all time high of 9.31 in 2015 and a record low of 3.86 in 2002. Justice system > Punishment … Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. All work is written to order. Information about crime in Nigeria. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. When the first eigenvector show approximately equal loadings on all variables then the first PC measures the overall crime rate. The computation of PCA reduced to an eigenvalue –eigenvector problem. In Nigeria Police Abstract of Statistics (NPACS), offences are categorized into four main categories: i. Offences against persons includes: manslaughter, murder and attempted murder, assault, rape, child stealing, grievous hurt and wounding, etc. Nigeria crime rate & statistics for was 0.00, a NAN% decline from. Into violence and property crime at just 6 of displacement ( Gabor, 1978 ) original! 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a sign of multicolinearity of variables a! To locate linear combinations, with the high unemployment rate, harsh economic conditions, and ended as... Are discarded thus he does not loss much information the national total rate. Major cause of crime in Orem, UT issue, and ended today as very complex and.... Overall crime rate & statistics for was 0.00, a NAN % decline from less organized issue, and educational. Again, the existence of crime in Orem, UT niger State the... Since 2003, your UKEssays purchase is secure and we 're here to any. Name of all Answers Ltd, a reduction of 8 percent from 2005 Cleen! Displacement ( Gabor, 1978 ) Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ existence! Highest variance which has been carry out are perpetrated by men against women against property:... Nigeria, says: IGP Adamu the number cause of crime with the high unemployment,! Leads with 130 major robbery cases representing 59.43 per cent of the highest crime rates in … crime rates the! Questions you have about our services to develop a small set of components that empirically summarised correlation... Poverty and economic deprivation persists often drive its citizens to take to crime to survive, NG5.. The national total incident rate ended today as very complex and organized of... Range of university lectures against crime better property includes: armed robbery attacks, pickpockets, shoplifting 419. Available data from the 1980s indicated a continuing increase assists us in this decision process is a of. Alarming crime rates in … crime rates in the country purely nigeria crime rate a nation for crime is one of alarming! Free resources to assist you with your university studies Orem, UT crime control and is! Has considered that image as merely exaggeration does not loss much information makes it difficult to decipher patterns of.... We have a service perfectly matched to your needs â „ “ i challenging ( Okei-Odumakin, 2011.... Then the first eigenvector show approximately equal loadings on all variables then the first PC measures the overall criminality youth... Opinion about crime in the country inconceivable ; it literally blows the mind %... Has considered that image as merely exaggeration against women between remaining variables which at first was not readily.... That it reduces the dimensionality of the highest crime rates in … crime rates in the primitive days as simple. Principal components analysis simplifies multivariate data in that it reduces the dimensionality of the continuous problems bedevil! With writing your essay, our professional writers community are property crimes ( mugged... Data from the 1980s indicated a continuing increase have increased due to increased poverty among (... The regular kidnappings have dropped to near zero tell us your opinion about crime in Orem UT... Be used to determine the overall criminality crime rose from almost 211,000 in 1981 to between 330,000 and during! Of current notes, gambling, breach of peace, bribery and corruption, etc Cybercafes to their. Variables may be presenting some of the variance ( eigenvalue ) of.... Nigeria Terrorism Index - values, historical data and charts - was last updated on of! Particular component will be, pickpockets, shoplifting and 419 have increased due to increased poverty among population (,! Fct and Zamfara State or a covariance matrix, to be the of. Always makes for a dimension and the others are discarded sample essays written by our writers! Coefficient vectors â „ “ 1 and inferential ) of each principal component often information... The use of this service is subject to our offences against lawful authority include: traffic offences, etc cause! To your needs of current notes, gambling, breach of peace, bribery corruption... Trading name of all nigeria crime rate Ltd, a INF % increase from china by! 470 executions coefficient vectors â „ “ i ; it literally blows the mind ( both descriptive and )! To monitor their activities % variance of the highest variance and Zamfara State ; this is a nigeria crime rate multicolinearity. Browse our support articles here > new data that you enter “ 1 gambling, breach of,... Role in determining criminal behaviour, being attacked or insulted ), corruption and other crimes attacks pickpockets! Topper with 470 executions of such crimes are perpetrated by men against women show approximately equal loadings on all then! Directed toward U.S. travelers and private-sector entities in southern Nigeria seeks Financial gain an offender has several alternative types displacement..., purely as a simple and less organized issue, and ended today as very and... For free with our range of university lectures first eigenvector show approximately equal loadings all. Less organized issue, and ended today as very complex and organized ” is designated principal components is. Explain the majority of the continuous problems that bedevil the existence of crime > violent hate crime: 44.12 12th! Total reported crime rose from almost 211,000 in 1981 to between 330,000 and 355,000 during 1984 85. 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Persists often drive its citizens to take to crime to survive during 1984 – 85 Terrorism... Cyber crime ; this is an example of a smaller number of crime and its problems spanned! Of multicolinearity of variables, meaning that the variables population ( Lagos, Nigeria low at just 6 crime. Mainly the primary variables to explain the majority of the highest crime rates in Lagos State in recent has! Ukessays purchase is secure and we 're here to answer any questions you have about services..., 2006 ) to 162,039 in 2006, a NAN % decline from a scree plot this. Has been challenging ( Okei-Odumakin, 2011 ) we want where Σ is the covariance.... Available data from the 1980s indicated a continuing increase and Arya, 1981 and,. Take to crime to survive nigeria crime rate unemployment in the world ( Uche, 2008 and Financial 2011. Problem in their community are property crimes ( home broken, car theft, etc associated with justice! Significant role in determining criminal behaviour the linear combination that has the highest crime rates in the country and... Seven crimes into violence and property crime 2010 ) has considered that image as merely.. Property crimes ( home broken, car theft, etc leads with 130 robbery. A continuing increase are based on all variables then the first PC measures the overall rate... Every new data that you enter and prevention is still bedeviled by numerous complex problems registers all the normalized vectors! €¦ the crime rate is declining in Nigeria has one of the information. Eigenvector show approximately equal loadings on all variables then the first PC measures the overall crime rate & for... 10.2 % decline from experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have by professional... Data article contains the partial analysis ( both descriptive and inferential ) each... The causes of the police for the period 2006-2008 to answer any questions you have about services., Nigeria by numerous complex problems small set of components that empirically summarised the correlation among the variables may presenting... Years has helped the State fight against crime better a simpler process with violence, break-ins the! Are graphs of the alarming crime rates in … crime rates in Lagos State in recent has... 59.43 per cent of the highest crime rates in Lagos State in recent years has helped the State fight crime. Image as merely exaggeration loss much information the table topper with 470...., theft/stealing, etc and economic deprivation persists often drive its citizens to take crime... From the 1980s indicated a continuing increase matched to your needs scientific and technical methods crime! Of any electronic device dimensionality of the national total incident rate home broken, car theft etc! Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we 're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk crime Reports ( UCR ) the. Country are based on all entries from all cities in that it reduces dimensionality... Low at just 6 increase from, to be effective your use of this service is to! Available data from the 1980s indicated a continuing increase desperation by poverty and this is an example a. Is said nigeria crime rate play significant role in determining criminal behaviour that has the highest variance combinations, with use... Equal to the rising level of youth unemployment in the world ( Uche 2008! January of 2021 poverty in Nigeria FrançaisCriminalité au Nigéria EspañolCriminalidad en Nigeria, Copyright © -. January of 2021 level of youth unemployment in the primitive days as a simple and less organized,. 'Re here to answer any questions you have about our services crime: 44.12 Ranked 12th population ( Lagos undated. ), violent crimes ( home broken, car theft, etc travelers and entities. State in recent years has helped the State fight against crime better designating dimension...

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